Siste publikasjoner

21717 Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT /Files 3 2017 0 PubID 21717 0 0 Pub_TypeNumber Journal of Public Economics, 147 (2017), 1-15 0 1 Pub_Writer Brekke, K., Garcia Pires, A., Schindler, D. and Schjelderup, G. 0 2 Pub_Title Capital Taxation and Imperfect Competition: ACE vs. CBIT 0 3 Pub_Publication /Files 0 4 Pub_AbstractEn 0 5 Pub_Type 3 0 6 Pub_Year 2017 0 7 Pub_OldID 0 0 8 21716 A11/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21716 1 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/16 1 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving 1 2 Pub_Title NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies 1 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_16_(1).pdf 1 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2014, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 10/16 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 5 Pub_Type 1 1 6 Pub_Year 2016 1 7 Pub_OldID 0 1 8 21714 A10/16 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 1 2016 0 PubID 21714 2 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/16 2 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving 2 2 Pub_Title Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper 2 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_16.pdf 2 4 Pub_AbstractEn 2 5 Pub_Type 1 2 6 Pub_Year 2016 2 7 Pub_OldID 0 2 8 21713 A09/16 Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal Concerns among local government facility managers /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 21713 3 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/16 3 1 Pub_Writer Arnt Ove Hopland and Sturla F. Kvamsdal 3 2 Pub_Title Concerns among local government facility managers 3 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_16.pdf 3 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">Purpose: To investigate which concerns are most important for local government facility managers in Norway.<br />Design: We analyze a survey dataset covering about 2/3 of all Norwegian local governments, using descriptive statistics techniques.<br />Findings: The facility managers are most worried about weak fiscal conditions and lack of political priority of facility management. Almost all facility managers report concerns about these issues, and the responses do not vary much across local governments with different characteristics. There is also widespread concern, albeit less serious, about organizational structure and recuitment problems. Local governments with a decentralized facility management are more concerned about the organizational structure than those with a centralized structure, and low-population local governments are more concerned about recruitment problems than those with a high population. Finally, local governments that report that their public buildings are in good condition generally have fewer and less serious concerns, in line with what one could expect.<br />Originality/value: The paper offers insights into which concerns that are most important among local government facility managers.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> 3 5 Pub_Type 1 3 6 Pub_Year 2016 3 7 Pub_OldID 0 3 8 20714 A08/16 Stein Ivar Steinshamn Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20714 4 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/16 4 1 Pub_Writer Stein Ivar Steinshamn 4 2 Pub_Title Predators in the market: Implications of market interaction on optimal resource management 4 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 08_16.pdf 4 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">A two-species bioeconomic model is analyzed, but in contrast to most similar models, there is no biological interaction between the species, only economic. The interaction takes place in the market where the quantity of either species may affect the price of the other. The effects of cross-price elasticities on the optimal steady state and on the optimal paths in the sole-owner case are investigated both analytically and numerically. First, it is shown that whether cross-price elasticities have impact on the steady state or not, depends heavily on the technology in the fishery (e.g. purse seine versus trawl). Further, in the case of linear demand functions, the steady state outcome depends solely on the sum of the cross-price parameters and not their individual values. This is shown analytically. Secondly, in the investigation of optimal paths, numeric methods must be resorted to. It is shown that cross-price elasticities have interesting effects on the paths. More precisely, when cross-price elasticities are present and are sufficiently high, the paths go from being monotonic to feature over- or undershooting.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> 4 5 Pub_Type 1 4 6 Pub_Year 2016 4 7 Pub_OldID 0 4 8 20713 A07/16 Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20713 5 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/16 5 1 Pub_Writer Eleonore Lazat and Trond Bjørndal 5 2 Pub_Title The Eastern Atlantic Bluefin Tuna: Fast Crash and Swift Recovery for the Ferrari of the Ocean? 5 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 07_16.pdf 5 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Bluefin tuna tastes delicious. Naturally, the Japanese sashimi market fights over this high value fish. Unfortunately, this moneymaking resource has been overfished since the 1970s due to its&rsquo; wide geographical spread and high sea open access characteristic, which means over 25 countries sought to capture it. This cumulated in near extinction of the species in the mid-2000s. The organisation in charge of managing the stock, the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), established a fifteen-year species recovery plan starting in 2006-2007. The plan includes fishing seasons, gear restrictions, quantity control and strict monitoring of vessels. Ten years into the programme, this project sets out to assess the state of the stock. Quantitative indicators will enable assessing the health of the stock, and qualitative methods will evaluate the managerial success of the recovery programme, in terms of member compliance and caution adopted with regard to the stock. Results of the research show the stock is en-route to recovery. Population indicators are recovering faster than expected. Recommendations, such as educational courses on stock sustainability for fishermen or knowledge-access incentives to comply, will hopefully reach the ICCAT to adapt the programme for the remaining five years.</p> 5 5 Pub_Type 1 5 6 Pub_Year 2016 5 7 Pub_OldID 0 5 8 20712 R05/16 Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20712 6 0 Pub_TypeNumber R05/16 6 1 Pub_Writer Frode Skjeret, Kåre Petter Hagen og Linda Nøstbakken 6 2 Pub_Title Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av Veterinærinstituttets innsats innen fiskehelse 6 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R05_16.pdf 6 4 Pub_AbstractEn 6 5 Pub_Type 2 6 6 Pub_Year 2015 6 7 Pub_OldID 0 6 8 20711 R04/16 Mathias Grønhaug Reierth og Juliet Tronstad Effektive team. Kognitiv motivasjon og maksimerings betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_16.pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 20711 7 0 Pub_TypeNumber R04/16 7 1 Pub_Writer Mathias Grønhaug Reierth og Juliet Tronstad 7 2 Pub_Title Effektive team. Kognitiv motivasjon og maksimerings betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer 7 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_16.pdf 7 4 Pub_AbstractEn 7 5 Pub_Type 2 7 6 Pub_Year 2016 7 7 Pub_OldID 0 7 8 20710 R20/15 Mats Vormeland Langgård og Fredrik Døhl Mostad Entreprenørens dilemmaer - Gode idéer uten finansiering /Files/Filer/Publications/R20_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20710 8 0 Pub_TypeNumber R20/15 8 1 Pub_Writer Mats Vormeland Langgård og Fredrik Døhl Mostad 8 2 Pub_Title Entreprenørens dilemmaer - Gode idéer uten finansiering 8 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R20_15.pdf 8 4 Pub_AbstractEn 8 5 Pub_Type 2 8 6 Pub_Year 2015 8 7 Pub_OldID 0 8 8 20709 R19/15 Malene Austrheim and Sonja Lee Solheim What makes employees trust forecasted numbers? /Files/Filer/Publications/R19_15.pdf <p>Volatile and changing market conditions have made financial planning tools of increasing importance for managers and practitioners. In recent years, the use of traditional budgets has been criticised as a management control tool.&nbsp; New management tools such as rolling forecasts have arisen. The purpose of this study is to explore how the rolling forecasting process affects trust in an organization. According to Bergstrand (2009) it is important for managers to trust each other in order to get the rolling forecast process to work efficiently. This is in line with Starovic &amp; Jackson (2004) who argue that trust needs to be present in an organization for the systems to work effectively.</p> <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts within an organization &ndash; namely DNV GL. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how the rolling forecasting process is understood and how that influences trust. Specifically we investigate:&nbsp; a) How employees make sense of the new financial planning process after introducing rolling forecasts, b) how employees experience that the rolling forecasting process facilitates trust between levels, c) if employees perceive any factors as challenging trust in the forecasting process.</p> <p>Our main findings show that rolling forecasting process influence trust in an organization. Trust is both facilitated and challenged as a consequence of the use of this management tool. By looking at trust through the concepts of ability, benevolence and integrity we are able to identify more specifically what aspects of trust that are influenced. Rolling forecasting process is understood as facilitating ability at all levels in the organization. On the other hand, trust in relation to integrity is only found facilitated at the higher levels in the organization. We explain these findings by looking at the lower level&acute;s understanding of the rolling forecasting process, which differs from the other levels. Rolling forecasting process challenges trust in terms of integrity and benevolence. Integrity is found challenged only at the higher levels. Benevolence is challenged at the lower levels as a result of gaming related behaviour. The thesis finds that the facilitation or challenge of trust is important as it influences how the employees use the forecasted numbers.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 20709 9 0 Pub_TypeNumber R19/15 9 1 Pub_Writer Malene Austrheim and Sonja Lee Solheim 9 2 Pub_Title What makes employees trust forecasted numbers? 9 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R19_15.pdf 9 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Volatile and changing market conditions have made financial planning tools of increasing importance for managers and practitioners. In recent years, the use of traditional budgets has been criticised as a management control tool.&nbsp; New management tools such as rolling forecasts have arisen. The purpose of this study is to explore how the rolling forecasting process affects trust in an organization. According to Bergstrand (2009) it is important for managers to trust each other in order to get the rolling forecast process to work efficiently. This is in line with Starovic &amp; Jackson (2004) who argue that trust needs to be present in an organization for the systems to work effectively.</p> <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts within an organization &ndash; namely DNV GL. Through qualitative research method, the study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how the rolling forecasting process is understood and how that influences trust. Specifically we investigate:&nbsp; a) How employees make sense of the new financial planning process after introducing rolling forecasts, b) how employees experience that the rolling forecasting process facilitates trust between levels, c) if employees perceive any factors as challenging trust in the forecasting process.</p> <p>Our main findings show that rolling forecasting process influence trust in an organization. Trust is both facilitated and challenged as a consequence of the use of this management tool. By looking at trust through the concepts of ability, benevolence and integrity we are able to identify more specifically what aspects of trust that are influenced. Rolling forecasting process is understood as facilitating ability at all levels in the organization. On the other hand, trust in relation to integrity is only found facilitated at the higher levels in the organization. We explain these findings by looking at the lower level&acute;s understanding of the rolling forecasting process, which differs from the other levels. Rolling forecasting process challenges trust in terms of integrity and benevolence. Integrity is found challenged only at the higher levels. Benevolence is challenged at the lower levels as a result of gaming related behaviour. The thesis finds that the facilitation or challenge of trust is important as it influences how the employees use the forecasted numbers.</p> 9 5 Pub_Type 2 9 6 Pub_Year 2015 9 7 Pub_OldID 0 9 8 20707 A05/16 Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon PCAIDS and Growth Index Demand Modelling for Imported Cod Products in Portugal. ‘Special Issue – Fisheries and Aquaculture’ /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 05_16.pdf <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify and measure own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted and salted &amp; dried cod products. The calculated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index model to measure shifts in demand impacting price of product. Controlling for supply shocks the growth index shows over the period a positive growth in demand for frozen product but a negative change in demand growth for salted, and to a lesser degree, for salted &amp; dried products. The results are used in simulating alternative price demand scenarios.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20707 10 0 Pub_TypeNumber A05/16 10 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon 10 2 Pub_Title PCAIDS and Growth Index Demand Modelling for Imported Cod Products in Portugal. ‘Special Issue – Fisheries and Aquaculture’ 10 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 05_16.pdf 10 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify and measure own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted and salted &amp; dried cod products. The calculated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index model to measure shifts in demand impacting price of product. Controlling for supply shocks the growth index shows over the period a positive growth in demand for frozen product but a negative change in demand growth for salted, and to a lesser degree, for salted &amp; dried products. The results are used in simulating alternative price demand scenarios.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 10 5 Pub_Type 1 10 6 Pub_Year 2016 10 7 Pub_OldID 0 10 8 20706 R17/15 Kathrine Slåtto Olsen og Vibeke Solum Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast /Files/Filer/Publications/R17_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20706 11 0 Pub_TypeNumber R17/15 11 1 Pub_Writer Kathrine Slåtto Olsen og Vibeke Solum 11 2 Pub_Title Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast 11 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R17_15.pdf 11 4 Pub_AbstractEn 11 5 Pub_Type 2 11 6 Pub_Year 2015 11 7 Pub_OldID 0 11 8 20705 R16/15 Anna Paula Fijalkowska og Karina Sofie Hjartåker Tilpasning av bemanning og valg av nedbemanningstiltak i bedrifter rammet av oljekrisen /Files/Filer/Publications/R16_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20705 12 0 Pub_TypeNumber R16/15 12 1 Pub_Writer Anna Paula Fijalkowska og Karina Sofie Hjartåker 12 2 Pub_Title Tilpasning av bemanning og valg av nedbemanningstiltak i bedrifter rammet av oljekrisen 12 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R16_15.pdf 12 4 Pub_AbstractEn 12 5 Pub_Type 2 12 6 Pub_Year 2015 12 7 Pub_OldID 0 12 8 20704 R15/15 Ruben Østrem og Øystein A. Tjølsen Teamkontraktens betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer. Direkte og medierende effekter mellom teamkontrakt, arbeidsprosesser og prestasjoner /Files/Filer/Publications/R15_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20704 13 0 Pub_TypeNumber R15/15 13 1 Pub_Writer Ruben Østrem og Øystein A. Tjølsen 13 2 Pub_Title Teamkontraktens betydning for hvordan team arbeider og presterer. Direkte og medierende effekter mellom teamkontrakt, arbeidsprosesser og prestasjoner 13 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R15_15.pdf 13 4 Pub_AbstractEn 13 5 Pub_Type 2 13 6 Pub_Year 2015 13 7 Pub_OldID 0 13 8 20703 R11/15 Henny Marie Fløystad og Inger Samuelsen Nordli Effekter av lederatferd. En studie av mellomstore regnskapsbedrifter i Norge /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20703 14 0 Pub_TypeNumber R11/15 14 1 Pub_Writer Henny Marie Fløystad og Inger Samuelsen Nordli 14 2 Pub_Title Effekter av lederatferd. En studie av mellomstore regnskapsbedrifter i Norge 14 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R11_15.pdf 14 4 Pub_AbstractEn 14 5 Pub_Type 2 14 6 Pub_Year 2015 14 7 Pub_OldID 0 14 8 20702 R10/15 Berit Fidjeland og Didrik Rosseid Breivik Effektivitet i lederteam. Hvordan kan et lederteams etableringsaktiviteter påvirke teamets videre prosesser og effektivitet? /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20702 15 0 Pub_TypeNumber R10/15 15 1 Pub_Writer Berit Fidjeland og Didrik Rosseid Breivik 15 2 Pub_Title Effektivitet i lederteam. Hvordan kan et lederteams etableringsaktiviteter påvirke teamets videre prosesser og effektivitet? 15 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R10_15.pdf 15 4 Pub_AbstractEn 15 5 Pub_Type 2 15 6 Pub_Year 2015 15 7 Pub_OldID 0 15 8 20701 R09/15 Martine Borgen Borgaard og Heidi Giske Psykologiske kontrakter i Professional Service Firms - En casestudie av et IT-konsulentselskap /Files/Filer/Publications/R09_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 20701 16 0 Pub_TypeNumber R09/15 16 1 Pub_Writer Martine Borgen Borgaard og Heidi Giske 16 2 Pub_Title Psykologiske kontrakter i Professional Service Firms - En casestudie av et IT-konsulentselskap 16 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R09_15.pdf 16 4 Pub_AbstractEn 16 5 Pub_Type 2 16 6 Pub_Year 2015 16 7 Pub_OldID 0 16 8 20700 A01/16 Kanira Shah and Trond Bjørndal The Café Femenino Peru Story: Evaluating the potential of a for-profit gender equitable value chain /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 01_16.pdf <p>The focus of this paper is on evaluating how Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru, an organically grown coffee produced by women, is successful in promoting gender equity, while being a for-profit business. Using the &lsquo;pro-poor perspective&rsquo; of Porter&rsquo;s value chain analysis as its primary methodology, this research identifies links and dynamics in the value chain of Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru but with a gender lens perspective.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results reveal that the combined increases in income and the increased access to assistance, through training and the Caf&eacute; Femenino Foundation in particular, has produced a big positive change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20700 17 0 Pub_TypeNumber A01/16 17 1 Pub_Writer Kanira Shah and Trond Bjørndal 17 2 Pub_Title The Café Femenino Peru Story: Evaluating the potential of a for-profit gender equitable value chain 17 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 01_16.pdf 17 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The focus of this paper is on evaluating how Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru, an organically grown coffee produced by women, is successful in promoting gender equity, while being a for-profit business. Using the &lsquo;pro-poor perspective&rsquo; of Porter&rsquo;s value chain analysis as its primary methodology, this research identifies links and dynamics in the value chain of Caf&eacute; Femenino Peru but with a gender lens perspective.&nbsp;</p> <p>Results reveal that the combined increases in income and the increased access to assistance, through training and the Caf&eacute; Femenino Foundation in particular, has produced a big positive change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 17 5 Pub_Type 1 17 6 Pub_Year 2016 17 7 Pub_OldID 0 17 8 20699 A04/16 Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik Fish Processing in Portugal: An Industry in Expansion /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 04_16.pdf <p>This paper analyses developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present as well prospects for future expansion. Fish processing has expanded in recent decades gaining market share in the domestic market for processed products at the expense of imports. Furthermore, Portugal has now become an important exporter to several countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20699 18 0 Pub_TypeNumber A04/16 18 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik 18 2 Pub_Title Fish Processing in Portugal: An Industry in Expansion 18 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 04_16.pdf 18 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This paper analyses developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present as well prospects for future expansion. Fish processing has expanded in recent decades gaining market share in the domestic market for processed products at the expense of imports. Furthermore, Portugal has now become an important exporter to several countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 18 5 Pub_Type 1 18 6 Pub_Year 2016 18 7 Pub_OldID 0 18 8 20698 A03/16 Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland Framing agenda for business model innovation research from the B2B context /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 03_16.pdf <p>This paper reviews the literature on business models in the business-to-business (B2B) context and proposes a research agenda that can be explored by future studies using various management and organizational theories. We outline four research themes and seven research topics for research on business model innovations in the B2B context. Further studies on these topics can make significant contributions to the business model literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20698 19 0 Pub_TypeNumber A03/16 19 1 Pub_Writer Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland 19 2 Pub_Title Framing agenda for business model innovation research from the B2B context 19 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 03_16.pdf 19 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This paper reviews the literature on business models in the business-to-business (B2B) context and proposes a research agenda that can be explored by future studies using various management and organizational theories. We outline four research themes and seven research topics for research on business model innovations in the B2B context. Further studies on these topics can make significant contributions to the business model literature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 19 5 Pub_Type 1 19 6 Pub_Year 2016 19 7 Pub_OldID 0 19 8 20697 A02/16 Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland A framework for sustainable interorganizational business model /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 02_16.pdf <p>Drawing on literature on business model innovations and sustainability, this paper develops a framework for sustainable interorganizational business models. The aim of the framework is to enhance the sustainability of firms&rsquo; business models by enabling firms to create future value by taking into account environmental, social and economic factors. The paper discusses two themes: (1) application of the term sustainability to business model innovation, and (2) implications of integrating sustainability into business model innovations for long-term economic success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20697 20 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/16 20 1 Pub_Writer Ganesh Prasad Neupane and Sven A. Haugland 20 2 Pub_Title A framework for sustainable interorganizational business model 20 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 02_16.pdf 20 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Drawing on literature on business model innovations and sustainability, this paper develops a framework for sustainable interorganizational business models. The aim of the framework is to enhance the sustainability of firms&rsquo; business models by enabling firms to create future value by taking into account environmental, social and economic factors. The paper discusses two themes: (1) application of the term sustainability to business model innovation, and (2) implications of integrating sustainability into business model innovations for long-term economic success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 20 5 Pub_Type 1 20 6 Pub_Year 2016 20 7 Pub_OldID 0 20 8 20696 A06/16 Yuanming Ni and Stein I. Steinshamn Optimal fishing mortalities with age-structured bioeconomic model-a case of NEA mackerel /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_16.pdf <p>The effects of random environmental impacts on optimal exploitation of a fish population are investigated using both optimization and simulation, based on a discrete-time age-structured bioeconomic model. The optimization problem is solved as a non-linear programming problem in GAMS. First, a basic model structure and 6 different scenarios, dealing with two interactions between fish and environment, are introduced. Based on the simplest scenario, eight different parameter combinations are tested. Then the optimization problem is solved for each of the 6 scenarios for a period of 100 years in order to gain long term insights. The main finding is that higher volatility from the environment leads to higher net profits but together with a lower probability of actually hitting the mean values. Simulations are conducted with different fixed fishing mortality levels under 6 scenarios. It seems that a constant fishing mortality around 0.06 is optimal. In the end, a comparison is made between historical and optimal harvest for a period of 40 years. It turns out that in more than 70% of the time, the optimal exploitation offered by our optimization model dominates the historical one, leading to 43% higher net profit and 34% lower fishing cost on average.</p> 1 2016 0 PubID 20696 21 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/16 21 1 Pub_Writer Yuanming Ni and Stein I. Steinshamn 21 2 Pub_Title Optimal fishing mortalities with age-structured bioeconomic model-a case of NEA mackerel 21 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_16.pdf 21 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The effects of random environmental impacts on optimal exploitation of a fish population are investigated using both optimization and simulation, based on a discrete-time age-structured bioeconomic model. The optimization problem is solved as a non-linear programming problem in GAMS. First, a basic model structure and 6 different scenarios, dealing with two interactions between fish and environment, are introduced. Based on the simplest scenario, eight different parameter combinations are tested. Then the optimization problem is solved for each of the 6 scenarios for a period of 100 years in order to gain long term insights. The main finding is that higher volatility from the environment leads to higher net profits but together with a lower probability of actually hitting the mean values. Simulations are conducted with different fixed fishing mortality levels under 6 scenarios. It seems that a constant fishing mortality around 0.06 is optimal. In the end, a comparison is made between historical and optimal harvest for a period of 40 years. It turns out that in more than 70% of the time, the optimal exploitation offered by our optimization model dominates the historical one, leading to 43% higher net profit and 34% lower fishing cost on average.</p> 21 5 Pub_Type 1 21 6 Pub_Year 2016 21 7 Pub_OldID 0 21 8 19697 R03/16 Eirik Vatne Sysselsetting i petroleumsvirksomhet 2015. Omfang og lokalisering av ansatte i oljeselskap og den spesialiserte leverandørindustrien /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_16_(1).pdf 2 2016 0 PubID 19697 22 0 Pub_TypeNumber R03/16 22 1 Pub_Writer Eirik Vatne 22 2 Pub_Title Sysselsetting i petroleumsvirksomhet 2015. Omfang og lokalisering av ansatte i oljeselskap og den spesialiserte leverandørindustrien 22 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_16_(1).pdf 22 4 Pub_AbstractEn 22 5 Pub_Type 2 22 6 Pub_Year 2016 22 7 Pub_OldID 0 22 8 18696 R12/15 Per Heum, Kåre Petter Hagen, Eva Benedicte Norman, Victor D. Norman og Linda Orvedal Samferdselsprosjekters betydning for verdiskapningen. Holdepunkter for en samfunnsøkonomisk tilnærming /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 12_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 18696 23 0 Pub_TypeNumber R12/15 23 1 Pub_Writer Per Heum, Kåre Petter Hagen, Eva Benedicte Norman, Victor D. Norman og Linda Orvedal 23 2 Pub_Title Samferdselsprosjekters betydning for verdiskapningen. Holdepunkter for en samfunnsøkonomisk tilnærming 23 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 12_15.pdf 23 4 Pub_AbstractEn 23 5 Pub_Type 2 23 6 Pub_Year 2015 23 7 Pub_OldID 0 23 8 17697 A12/15 Henrik Fjellstad og Eirik Sund Karlsen Koordinert adferd i banknæringen. Prissignalisering – et problem for samfunnet? /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_15.pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 17697 24 0 Pub_TypeNumber A12/15 24 1 Pub_Writer Henrik Fjellstad og Eirik Sund Karlsen 24 2 Pub_Title Koordinert adferd i banknæringen. Prissignalisering – et problem for samfunnet? 24 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A12_15.pdf 24 4 Pub_AbstractEn 24 5 Pub_Type 1 24 6 Pub_Year 2015 24 7 Pub_OldID 0 24 8 17696 A13/15 Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik The Portuguese Fish Processing Industry from the 1960s to the Present /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 13_15.pdf <p>The purpose of this report is to analyse developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present. In this period, Portugal has undergone tremendous political and macroeconomic changes. While Portugal used to be nearly self sufficient in the supply of fish, the country has become a net importer of fish. These changes have also affected fish processing. Moreover, the development of this industry has been promoted in several different ways, and Portugal has now also become an important exporter to several countries. The purpose of this report is to highlight and analyse these developments. In a sense, it is an extension of Bj&oslash;rndal et al., (2015), who analysed the development in Portuguese fisheries from the 1960s to the present.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 17696 25 0 Pub_TypeNumber A13/15 25 1 Pub_Writer Trond Bjørndal, Ana Brasão, Jorge Ramos and Amalie Tusvik 25 2 Pub_Title The Portuguese Fish Processing Industry from the 1960s to the Present 25 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 13_15.pdf 25 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The purpose of this report is to analyse developments in the Portuguese fish processing industry from the 1960s to the present. In this period, Portugal has undergone tremendous political and macroeconomic changes. While Portugal used to be nearly self sufficient in the supply of fish, the country has become a net importer of fish. These changes have also affected fish processing. Moreover, the development of this industry has been promoted in several different ways, and Portugal has now also become an important exporter to several countries. The purpose of this report is to highlight and analyse these developments. In a sense, it is an extension of Bj&oslash;rndal et al., (2015), who analysed the development in Portuguese fisheries from the 1960s to the present.</p> 25 5 Pub_Type 1 25 6 Pub_Year 2015 25 7 Pub_OldID 0 25 8 16696 R14/15 Erik Døving, Paul N. Gooderham og Henrik Øhrn HR-feltet i Norge 1995-2014: Stabilitet og profesjonalisering? /Files/Filer/Publications/R14_15.pdf <p>Dette er en sammenstilling av resultater fra fire runder av Cranet-unders&oslash;kelsen i Norge. Etter 20 &aring;r med HR-unders&oslash;kelser i Norge avtegner det seg et hovedbilde. HR er et felt preget av betydelig stabilitet over to ti&aring;r der norsk &oslash;konomi og samfunn har v&aelig;rt i betydelig utvikling. Mange HR-aktiviteter er temmelig like i dag som for 20 &aring;r siden. Samtidig er HR-feltet i utvikling, der vi blant annet ser tendenser til at HR kommer h&oslash;yere p&aring; dagsorden i virksomhetene og slik blir tydelig knyttet til virksomhetens strategi og overordnete arbeid. Dette tror vi er uttrykk for mer profesjonalisering av HR-arbeidet i virksomhetene.</p> 2 2014 0 PubID 16696 26 0 Pub_TypeNumber R14/15 26 1 Pub_Writer Erik Døving, Paul N. Gooderham og Henrik Øhrn 26 2 Pub_Title HR-feltet i Norge 1995-2014: Stabilitet og profesjonalisering? 26 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R14_15.pdf 26 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Dette er en sammenstilling av resultater fra fire runder av Cranet-unders&oslash;kelsen i Norge. Etter 20 &aring;r med HR-unders&oslash;kelser i Norge avtegner det seg et hovedbilde. HR er et felt preget av betydelig stabilitet over to ti&aring;r der norsk &oslash;konomi og samfunn har v&aelig;rt i betydelig utvikling. Mange HR-aktiviteter er temmelig like i dag som for 20 &aring;r siden. Samtidig er HR-feltet i utvikling, der vi blant annet ser tendenser til at HR kommer h&oslash;yere p&aring; dagsorden i virksomhetene og slik blir tydelig knyttet til virksomhetens strategi og overordnete arbeid. Dette tror vi er uttrykk for mer profesjonalisering av HR-arbeidet i virksomhetene.</p> 26 5 Pub_Type 2 26 6 Pub_Year 2014 26 7 Pub_OldID 0 26 8 15696 A11/15 Kristin Ward Heimdal and Kristoffer Johnsen Solberg The effect of competition on non-performing loan rates. Evidence from the Norwegian banking market /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_15.pdf <p>The relationship between bank competition and financial stability has been thoroughly debated over the last decades. The importance of a stable banking system for financial stability makes this a topic of interest for both economists and regulators.</p><p>Using accounting data for Norwegian banks over the last 20 years, we assess the relationship between the rate of non-performing loans and different measures of competition. We find a non-linear relationship between market concentration and loan risk. For low levels of concentration, increased concentration reduces non-performing loan rates. Past a certain level of concentration, this relationship is reversed. Our findings indicate that the Norwegian banking market today is close to this optimal level, suggesting that a continued increasing trend in concentration will contribute to higher non-performing loan rates.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 15696 27 0 Pub_TypeNumber A11/15 27 1 Pub_Writer Kristin Ward Heimdal and Kristoffer Johnsen Solberg 27 2 Pub_Title The effect of competition on non-performing loan rates. Evidence from the Norwegian banking market 27 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A11_15.pdf 27 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The relationship between bank competition and financial stability has been thoroughly debated over the last decades. The importance of a stable banking system for financial stability makes this a topic of interest for both economists and regulators.</p><p>Using accounting data for Norwegian banks over the last 20 years, we assess the relationship between the rate of non-performing loans and different measures of competition. We find a non-linear relationship between market concentration and loan risk. For low levels of concentration, increased concentration reduces non-performing loan rates. Past a certain level of concentration, this relationship is reversed. Our findings indicate that the Norwegian banking market today is close to this optimal level, suggesting that a continued increasing trend in concentration will contribute to higher non-performing loan rates.</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 27 5 Pub_Type 1 27 6 Pub_Year 2015 27 7 Pub_OldID 0 27 8 15695 R13/15 Torstein Nesheim Enhetlig styring i en mangfoldig stat? En kunnskapsoversikt over betingelser for ledelse, styring, organisering og samordning i staten /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 15695 28 0 Pub_TypeNumber R13/15 28 1 Pub_Writer Torstein Nesheim 28 2 Pub_Title Enhetlig styring i en mangfoldig stat? En kunnskapsoversikt over betingelser for ledelse, styring, organisering og samordning i staten 28 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R13_15.pdf 28 4 Pub_AbstractEn 28 5 Pub_Type 2 28 6 Pub_Year 2015 28 7 Pub_OldID 0 28 8 15694 R01/15 Thea Jarneid Holmen and Ingvild Skurtveit A Longitudinal Perspective on Rolling Forecasts & Interactions /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_15.pdf <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization. Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. Through qualitative research method, this study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how forecasting information, in a longitudinal perspective, affects top management interaction. Specifically we investigate: (a) how top management make use of forecasting information; (b) what changes has affected the forecasting information and influenced top management discussions; and (c) what challenges in regards of forecasting processes have affected top management attention.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15694 29 0 Pub_TypeNumber R01/15 29 1 Pub_Writer Thea Jarneid Holmen and Ingvild Skurtveit 29 2 Pub_Title A Longitudinal Perspective on Rolling Forecasts & Interactions 29 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R01_15.pdf 29 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This thesis is a case study exploring the practice of rolling forecasts as a dynamic management tool within an organization. Increasingly complex and dynamic business environment has led to the introduction of contemporary management control systems and management accounting innovations, such as rolling forecasts that is an important tool in the Beyond Budgeting philosophy. Through qualitative research method, this study aims to get an in-depth understanding of how forecasting information, in a longitudinal perspective, affects top management interaction. Specifically we investigate: (a) how top management make use of forecasting information; (b) what changes has affected the forecasting information and influenced top management discussions; and (c) what challenges in regards of forecasting processes have affected top management attention.</p> 29 5 Pub_Type 2 29 6 Pub_Year 2015 29 7 Pub_OldID 0 29 8 15693 A15/15 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies /Files/Filer/Publications/A15_15.pdf <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2013, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 14/15 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 15693 30 0 Pub_TypeNumber A15/15 30 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs and Marius Olving 30 2 Pub_Title NORWEGIAN CORPORATE ACCOUNTS - Documentation and quality assurance of SNF’s and NHH’s database of accounting and company information for Norwegian companies 30 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A15_15.pdf 30 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This working paper describes the database used by the Institute for Research in Economics (SNF) and the Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) in research based on companies' accounts. The purpose of this working paper and the pertaining data files with accounting and company data is to document and quality assure the database covering all Norwegian enterprises and groups for the years 1992 to 2013, with some exceptions in the first years. The working paper is a translation of Arbeidsnotat nr. 14/15 &ldquo;Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske bedrifter&rdquo;, which is the latest version of a series of annual working papers started from 2009. The translation has been financed by the Argentum Centre for Private Equity at NHH.</p> 30 5 Pub_Type 1 30 6 Pub_Year 2015 30 7 Pub_OldID 0 30 8 15692 R05/15 Eirik Vatne Growth and Innovation: Venture capital, private equity, and innovation processes in service industries /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 05_15.pdf <p>This report focuses on service-innovation in firms supported by venture capital/private equity. The first part discusses specific characteristics of services and develops a typology of innovation modes. The second part identifies the importance of service firms among Norwegian firms supported by risk money. Results are reported from a small survey among fund managers focused on motives for investing in their portfolio firms. The last part conveys results from a qualitative case study including 21 portfolio firms in services. It documents development processes and resources used in innovation projects. Few projects were classified as radical innovation. The majority of projects were incremental innovations or based on recombination of existing resources. Technology and software were important elements in most projects. Customers&rsquo; needs were identified as an important trigger, but the innovation project was mainly initiated by the firm&rsquo;s own personnel. Innovation projects were formally organized, often dependent on resources controlled by the operational part of the firm. This dependency created conflicts, normally solved through informal relations. Innovation projects were seldom registered as R&amp;D. Only crude measures of performance were used. The most important resources for innovation were reported to be the firm&rsquo;s human capital, combined with a culture for change and well-developed social networks. Financial and managerial support from the VC/PE-owner were also regarded as important, but generally, the firms were not involved in larger networks of partners for innovation. Lastly, some implications for innovation policy are discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15692 31 0 Pub_TypeNumber R05/15 31 1 Pub_Writer Eirik Vatne 31 2 Pub_Title Growth and Innovation: Venture capital, private equity, and innovation processes in service industries 31 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 05_15.pdf 31 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This report focuses on service-innovation in firms supported by venture capital/private equity. The first part discusses specific characteristics of services and develops a typology of innovation modes. The second part identifies the importance of service firms among Norwegian firms supported by risk money. Results are reported from a small survey among fund managers focused on motives for investing in their portfolio firms. The last part conveys results from a qualitative case study including 21 portfolio firms in services. It documents development processes and resources used in innovation projects. Few projects were classified as radical innovation. The majority of projects were incremental innovations or based on recombination of existing resources. Technology and software were important elements in most projects. Customers&rsquo; needs were identified as an important trigger, but the innovation project was mainly initiated by the firm&rsquo;s own personnel. Innovation projects were formally organized, often dependent on resources controlled by the operational part of the firm. This dependency created conflicts, normally solved through informal relations. Innovation projects were seldom registered as R&amp;D. Only crude measures of performance were used. The most important resources for innovation were reported to be the firm&rsquo;s human capital, combined with a culture for change and well-developed social networks. Financial and managerial support from the VC/PE-owner were also regarded as important, but generally, the firms were not involved in larger networks of partners for innovation. Lastly, some implications for innovation policy are discussed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 31 5 Pub_Type 2 31 6 Pub_Year 2015 31 7 Pub_OldID 0 31 8 15691 R06/15 Evangelos Toumasatos and Fo Wang A Bioeconomic and Game Theoretic Analysis of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_15.pdf <p>This is an empirical analysis of the so-called Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute between coastal nations such as the EU, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In this thesis, firstly, we discuss the relevant biological and managerial aspects of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel. Then we begin to give a full factual depiction of the dispute. Based on the historical accounts of the dispute, we define the research problems of the issue. Further, we lay out the theoretical basis for solving such problems, i.e., fishery economics and game theory. By applying the theoretical framework and adopting the bioeconomic model, we solve the problems with extensive discussion and sensitivity analysis. The solution we find for the Mackerel Dispute is that all coastal nations should cooperate because such cooperation would lead to more NPV, recruitment and&nbsp; escapement levels of the mackerel stock but less harvest collectively. However, only with a proper benefit sharing arrangement, such cooperation may be feasible, resulting in each individual player end up with more benefit than acting on its own.</p> 2 2015 0 PubID 15691 32 0 Pub_TypeNumber R06/15 32 1 Pub_Writer Evangelos Toumasatos and Fo Wang 32 2 Pub_Title A Bioeconomic and Game Theoretic Analysis of the Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute 32 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R06_15.pdf 32 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This is an empirical analysis of the so-called Northeast Atlantic Mackerel Dispute between coastal nations such as the EU, Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In this thesis, firstly, we discuss the relevant biological and managerial aspects of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel. Then we begin to give a full factual depiction of the dispute. Based on the historical accounts of the dispute, we define the research problems of the issue. Further, we lay out the theoretical basis for solving such problems, i.e., fishery economics and game theory. By applying the theoretical framework and adopting the bioeconomic model, we solve the problems with extensive discussion and sensitivity analysis. The solution we find for the Mackerel Dispute is that all coastal nations should cooperate because such cooperation would lead to more NPV, recruitment and&nbsp; escapement levels of the mackerel stock but less harvest collectively. However, only with a proper benefit sharing arrangement, such cooperation may be feasible, resulting in each individual player end up with more benefit than acting on its own.</p> 32 5 Pub_Type 2 32 6 Pub_Year 2015 32 7 Pub_OldID 0 32 8 14692 A10/15 José Fernández Polanco and Trond Bjørndal Value Chain and Price Integration in the Spanish Market for Salted Cod /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_15.pdf <p>Salted cod is a much appreciated product in the traditional Spanish cuisine. Following the collapse of the Newfoundland fishery, local processors became dependent on imports of raw material in order to keep on producing. As a result, substantial changes in the value chain structure and dynamics took place. Using price integration techniques, this paper analyzes the relation across prices of salted cod products along the value chain in the modern Spanish markets. Horizontal price integration is used to test competition across commodities and countries at the import level. Vertical integration analyzes price transmission from imports to retail. Results suggest competition across imports of different commodities of salted cod and countries of origin. On the other side, changes in the prices of imports are transmitted to final consumers when the product is imported from the producing country. However, price transmission can be affected when intra EU trade takes place.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14692 33 0 Pub_TypeNumber A10/15 33 1 Pub_Writer José Fernández Polanco and Trond Bjørndal 33 2 Pub_Title Value Chain and Price Integration in the Spanish Market for Salted Cod 33 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A10_15.pdf 33 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Salted cod is a much appreciated product in the traditional Spanish cuisine. Following the collapse of the Newfoundland fishery, local processors became dependent on imports of raw material in order to keep on producing. As a result, substantial changes in the value chain structure and dynamics took place. Using price integration techniques, this paper analyzes the relation across prices of salted cod products along the value chain in the modern Spanish markets. Horizontal price integration is used to test competition across commodities and countries at the import level. Vertical integration analyzes price transmission from imports to retail. Results suggest competition across imports of different commodities of salted cod and countries of origin. On the other side, changes in the prices of imports are transmitted to final consumers when the product is imported from the producing country. However, price transmission can be affected when intra EU trade takes place.</p> 33 5 Pub_Type 1 33 6 Pub_Year 2015 33 7 Pub_OldID 0 33 8 14691 A09/15 Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon Demand Characteristics for Imported Cod Products in Portugal Frozen, Salted & Dried and Salted /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_15.pdf <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted &amp; dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shifts in demand overtime impacting price of product. <br />Results suggest that over the period of study a strong positive shift in demand for frozen product doubling the price of the product relative to the initial period. But both imported salted &amp; dried and salted product show overall negative shifts in demand decreasing price and may represent a structural shift towards frozen product.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14691 34 0 Pub_TypeNumber A09/15 34 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche and Daniel V. Gordon 34 2 Pub_Title Demand Characteristics for Imported Cod Products in Portugal Frozen, Salted & Dried and Salted 34 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A09_15.pdf 34 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted &amp; dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shifts in demand overtime impacting price of product. <br />Results suggest that over the period of study a strong positive shift in demand for frozen product doubling the price of the product relative to the initial period. But both imported salted &amp; dried and salted product show overall negative shifts in demand decreasing price and may represent a structural shift towards frozen product.</p> 34 5 Pub_Type 1 34 6 Pub_Year 2015 34 7 Pub_OldID 0 34 8 14690 A14/15 Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper /Files/Filer/Publications/A14_15.pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 14690 35 0 Pub_TypeNumber A14/15 35 1 Pub_Writer Endre Berner, Aksel Mjøs og Marius Olving 35 2 Pub_Title Regnskapsboka - Dokumentasjon og kvalitetssikring av SNFs og NHHs database med regnskaps- og foretaksinformasjon for norske selskaper 35 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A14_15.pdf 35 4 Pub_AbstractEn 35 5 Pub_Type 1 35 6 Pub_Year 2015 35 7 Pub_OldID 0 35 8 14689 R07/15 Per Egil Pedersen, Tor Helge Aas, Kristin Bentsen and Are Branstad Patterns and practices of innovation in Norwegian service firms /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 07_15.pdf <p>This report documents the studies conducted in workpackages 2 and 4 in the SNF-project &ldquo;MISSING: Measuring innovation in service systems &ndash; indicators on new grounds&rdquo;. It first presents the resource-process-system framework applied in the studies and also summarizes some of the relevant findings and gaps in the innovation studies and innovation management literatures on service innovation. Two empirical studies are reported. The first is founded in the innovation studies literature on innovation patterns but extends this tradition into the investigation of the performance effects of innovation patterns with particular focus on service sectors/systems. The study finds several unique innovation patterns of individual service sectors/systems and reveals the relationship between these patterns and three types of firm performance effects. The second study is founded in the innovation management literature on innovation practices and extends this literature by linking its selection of individual firms to service classification schemes offered in the innovation studies literature. The study finds more similarities between the innovation practices of service firms in different sectors/systems than differences. The report ends with summarizing the findings across the two studies and suggests managerial and policy implications of the findings. </p> 2 2015 0 PubID 14689 36 0 Pub_TypeNumber R07/15 36 1 Pub_Writer Per Egil Pedersen, Tor Helge Aas, Kristin Bentsen and Are Branstad 36 2 Pub_Title Patterns and practices of innovation in Norwegian service firms 36 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 07_15.pdf 36 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>This report documents the studies conducted in workpackages 2 and 4 in the SNF-project &ldquo;MISSING: Measuring innovation in service systems &ndash; indicators on new grounds&rdquo;. It first presents the resource-process-system framework applied in the studies and also summarizes some of the relevant findings and gaps in the innovation studies and innovation management literatures on service innovation. Two empirical studies are reported. The first is founded in the innovation studies literature on innovation patterns but extends this tradition into the investigation of the performance effects of innovation patterns with particular focus on service sectors/systems. The study finds several unique innovation patterns of individual service sectors/systems and reveals the relationship between these patterns and three types of firm performance effects. The second study is founded in the innovation management literature on innovation practices and extends this literature by linking its selection of individual firms to service classification schemes offered in the innovation studies literature. The study finds more similarities between the innovation practices of service firms in different sectors/systems than differences. The report ends with summarizing the findings across the two studies and suggests managerial and policy implications of the findings. </p> 36 5 Pub_Type 2 36 6 Pub_Year 2015 36 7 Pub_OldID 0 36 8 14688 A07/15 Lars Sørgard Vil konkurranse undergrave stabiliteten i banksektoren? /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_15_(1).pdf 1 2015 0 PubID 14688 37 0 Pub_TypeNumber A07/15 37 1 Pub_Writer Lars Sørgard 37 2 Pub_Title Vil konkurranse undergrave stabiliteten i banksektoren? 37 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A07_15_(1).pdf 37 4 Pub_AbstractEn 37 5 Pub_Type 1 37 6 Pub_Year 2015 37 7 Pub_OldID 0 37 8 14687 A08/15 Armando J. Garcia Pires Content Provision and Multi-Homing /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_15.pdf <p>We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers prefer media firms with more demand. As such, media firms would like to increase demand to increase advertising revenues. Offering more content increases demand because more consumers can consume their ideal variety without paying transport costs. We show that, relatively to the case with single-homing consumers, media firms provide less content with multi-homing consumers. The reason is that with multi-homing consumers, competition between media firms is weakened. Multi-homing consumers consume from all media firms, and therefore media firms have lower incentives to provide content to attract demand, and advertising revenues. As a result, social welfare tends to be higher under the multi-homing case relatively to the single-homing case, when the advertising market is large, and when the network effects are large relative to the intensity of consumers&rsquo; preferences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 14687 38 0 Pub_TypeNumber A08/15 38 1 Pub_Writer Armando J. Garcia Pires 38 2 Pub_Title Content Provision and Multi-Homing 38 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A08_15.pdf 38 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers prefer media firms with more demand. As such, media firms would like to increase demand to increase advertising revenues. Offering more content increases demand because more consumers can consume their ideal variety without paying transport costs. We show that, relatively to the case with single-homing consumers, media firms provide less content with multi-homing consumers. The reason is that with multi-homing consumers, competition between media firms is weakened. Multi-homing consumers consume from all media firms, and therefore media firms have lower incentives to provide content to attract demand, and advertising revenues. As a result, social welfare tends to be higher under the multi-homing case relatively to the single-homing case, when the advertising market is large, and when the network effects are large relative to the intensity of consumers&rsquo; preferences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 38 5 Pub_Type 1 38 6 Pub_Year 2015 38 7 Pub_OldID 0 38 8 13687 A06/15 Sturla Furunes Kvamsdal Indexing of Technical Change in Aggregated Data /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_15.pdf <p>The Baltagi-Griffin general index of technical change for panel data has earlier been applied to aggregated data via the use of period dummy variables. Period dummies force modeling into estimation of the latent level of technology through choice of dummy structure. Period dummies also do not exploit the full information set because the order of observations within periods is ignored. To resolve these problems, I suggest estimating the empirical equation for all possible structures of the dummy variables. The average over the different estimates provides an index of technical change. I demonstrate the method with both simulated and real data.</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 13687 39 0 Pub_TypeNumber A06/15 39 1 Pub_Writer Sturla Furunes Kvamsdal 39 2 Pub_Title Indexing of Technical Change in Aggregated Data 39 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A06_15.pdf 39 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The Baltagi-Griffin general index of technical change for panel data has earlier been applied to aggregated data via the use of period dummy variables. Period dummies force modeling into estimation of the latent level of technology through choice of dummy structure. Period dummies also do not exploit the full information set because the order of observations within periods is ignored. To resolve these problems, I suggest estimating the empirical equation for all possible structures of the dummy variables. The average over the different estimates provides an index of technical change. I demonstrate the method with both simulated and real data.</p> 39 5 Pub_Type 1 39 6 Pub_Year 2015 39 7 Pub_OldID 0 39 8 13685 R03/15 Frank Asche og Sigbjørn Tveteraas Prisindekser for det europeiske laksemarkedet /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 13685 40 0 Pub_TypeNumber R03/15 40 1 Pub_Writer Frank Asche og Sigbjørn Tveteraas 40 2 Pub_Title Prisindekser for det europeiske laksemarkedet 40 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R03_15.pdf 40 4 Pub_AbstractEn 40 5 Pub_Type 2 40 6 Pub_Year 2015 40 7 Pub_OldID 0 40 8 13684 R04/15 Nils-Arne Ekerhovd, Linda Nøstbakken og Frode Skjeret Ulovleg omsetnad i fiskeri- og havbruksnæringa /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 13684 41 0 Pub_TypeNumber R04/15 41 1 Pub_Writer Nils-Arne Ekerhovd, Linda Nøstbakken og Frode Skjeret 41 2 Pub_Title Ulovleg omsetnad i fiskeri- og havbruksnæringa 41 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/R04_15.pdf 41 4 Pub_AbstractEn 41 5 Pub_Type 2 41 6 Pub_Year 2015 41 7 Pub_OldID 0 41 8 12684 A05/15 Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge and Armando J. Garcia Pires Gender, Social Norms, and Entrepreneurship /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_15.pdf <p>In this paper, we analyze two puzzles on entrepreneurship and gender. First, a number of field experiments in developing countries on business training and business grants have shown that it is very difficult to raise entrepreneurial outcomes for female entrepreneurs. Second, women tend to be over-represented in the informal sector in developing countries, and in particular in microfinance institutions. We present a simple model of entrepreneurship that aims to explain these two puzzles. In the model, entrepreneurship arises from the interaction of ability, access to capital and labor investments. To this, we add two social norms that are widespread in developing countries (but not only): women have domestic obligations that restrict the time they can dedicate to their businesses (while men do not); and women have less access to capital than men. Consequently, women self-select into the informal sector since it requires less capital and labor investment. The model also indicates that raising entrepreneurial capabilities of time-constrained women in just one or two dimensions, like ability (via business training) and capital (via business grants), might not be sufficient to promote entrepreneurial success. We present evidence that supports these hypotheses using data from a field experiment in Tanzania with microfinance clients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 12684 42 0 Pub_TypeNumber A05/15 42 1 Pub_Writer Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge and Armando J. Garcia Pires 42 2 Pub_Title Gender, Social Norms, and Entrepreneurship 42 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A05_15.pdf 42 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>In this paper, we analyze two puzzles on entrepreneurship and gender. First, a number of field experiments in developing countries on business training and business grants have shown that it is very difficult to raise entrepreneurial outcomes for female entrepreneurs. Second, women tend to be over-represented in the informal sector in developing countries, and in particular in microfinance institutions. We present a simple model of entrepreneurship that aims to explain these two puzzles. In the model, entrepreneurship arises from the interaction of ability, access to capital and labor investments. To this, we add two social norms that are widespread in developing countries (but not only): women have domestic obligations that restrict the time they can dedicate to their businesses (while men do not); and women have less access to capital than men. Consequently, women self-select into the informal sector since it requires less capital and labor investment. The model also indicates that raising entrepreneurial capabilities of time-constrained women in just one or two dimensions, like ability (via business training) and capital (via business grants), might not be sufficient to promote entrepreneurial success. We present evidence that supports these hypotheses using data from a field experiment in Tanzania with microfinance clients.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 42 5 Pub_Type 1 42 6 Pub_Year 2015 42 7 Pub_OldID 0 42 8 12683 A04/15 Armando J. Garcia Pires Media Diversity, Advertising and Net Neutrality /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_15.pdf <p>In this paper, we analyze the effects of net neutrality on media diversity. We show that in the net neutrality regime, media firms always provide media diversity, whereas in the no net neutrality regime, the equilibrium of the model depends on the relation between network capacity and network traffic. If the network capacity is large relative to network traffic, the equilibrium of the no net neutrality regime is similar to the one under the net neutrality regime. However, if network capacity is small relative to network traffic, under the no net neutrality regime media firms do not provide media diversity. The reason is that when network capacity is small relative to network traffic, the no net neutrality regime hinders competition. In other words, with no net neutrality, the media firm with priority sees its hinterland more protected from its rival than under net neutrality, and the contrary for the firm with no priority. As a result, while the media firm with priority has less need to provide media diversity to attract demand and, as such, advertising revenues, the media firm with no priority finds it more difficult to use media diversity to attract demand and advertising revenues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 12683 43 0 Pub_TypeNumber A04/15 43 1 Pub_Writer Armando J. Garcia Pires 43 2 Pub_Title Media Diversity, Advertising and Net Neutrality 43 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A04_15.pdf 43 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>In this paper, we analyze the effects of net neutrality on media diversity. We show that in the net neutrality regime, media firms always provide media diversity, whereas in the no net neutrality regime, the equilibrium of the model depends on the relation between network capacity and network traffic. If the network capacity is large relative to network traffic, the equilibrium of the no net neutrality regime is similar to the one under the net neutrality regime. However, if network capacity is small relative to network traffic, under the no net neutrality regime media firms do not provide media diversity. The reason is that when network capacity is small relative to network traffic, the no net neutrality regime hinders competition. In other words, with no net neutrality, the media firm with priority sees its hinterland more protected from its rival than under net neutrality, and the contrary for the firm with no priority. As a result, while the media firm with priority has less need to provide media diversity to attract demand and, as such, advertising revenues, the media firm with no priority finds it more difficult to use media diversity to attract demand and advertising revenues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 43 5 Pub_Type 1 43 6 Pub_Year 2015 43 7 Pub_OldID 0 43 8 12682 A15/14 Stein Ivar Steinshamn and Peter Golubtsov A bioeconomic analysis of an age-structured fish stock continuous in time and age /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 15_14.pdf <p>An age-structured bioeconomic model, that is completely continuous in state and time, is developed. To make the model more realistic, a nonlinear recruitment function is introduced and steady state solutions are studied analytically. The objective is to maximize discounted net revenue. As the combination of continuous state and time requires solving partial differential equations, the analytical study has been complemented with numerical results. The main objective of numerical simulations is to investigate how optimal harvesting patterns vary with different assumptions and parameter values. In particular the purpose is to find out how persistent pulse fishing patterns are when we use this kind of modeling framework. Main emphasis is put on cost and demand parameters. The main results from the analysis are that pulse fishing patterns are highly sensitive both to cost and demand parameters, and pulse fishing tend to disappear completely when there is a significant relationship between price and quantity. </p> 1 2014 0 PubID 12682 44 0 Pub_TypeNumber A15/14 44 1 Pub_Writer Stein Ivar Steinshamn and Peter Golubtsov 44 2 Pub_Title A bioeconomic analysis of an age-structured fish stock continuous in time and age 44 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 15_14.pdf 44 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>An age-structured bioeconomic model, that is completely continuous in state and time, is developed. To make the model more realistic, a nonlinear recruitment function is introduced and steady state solutions are studied analytically. The objective is to maximize discounted net revenue. As the combination of continuous state and time requires solving partial differential equations, the analytical study has been complemented with numerical results. The main objective of numerical simulations is to investigate how optimal harvesting patterns vary with different assumptions and parameter values. In particular the purpose is to find out how persistent pulse fishing patterns are when we use this kind of modeling framework. Main emphasis is put on cost and demand parameters. The main results from the analysis are that pulse fishing patterns are highly sensitive both to cost and demand parameters, and pulse fishing tend to disappear completely when there is a significant relationship between price and quantity. </p> 44 5 Pub_Type 1 44 6 Pub_Year 2014 44 7 Pub_OldID 0 44 8 12681 A12/14 Nils-Arne Ekerhovd and Stein Ivar Steinshamn Optimization in the ‘Pelagic Complex’: A Multi-Species Competition Model of North East Atlantic Fisheries /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 12_14.pdf <p>Optimal management of herring, mackerel and blue whiting in the North East Atlantic is analyzed. The main motivation is to quantify the potential gain from implementing multi-species management compared to traditional single-species management. The objective is to maximize discounted net revenue; in other words a sole-owner perspective. The results are derived from an empirically based surplus growth type of model with three species. The biological interaction in the model is mainly competition for food. An important result is that discounted net revenue could have been up to 30% higher if the stocks had been optimally managed from a multi-species perspective.</p> 1 2014 0 PubID 12681 45 0 Pub_TypeNumber A12/14 45 1 Pub_Writer Nils-Arne Ekerhovd and Stein Ivar Steinshamn 45 2 Pub_Title Optimization in the ‘Pelagic Complex’: A Multi-Species Competition Model of North East Atlantic Fisheries 45 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF WP 12_14.pdf 45 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>Optimal management of herring, mackerel and blue whiting in the North East Atlantic is analyzed. The main motivation is to quantify the potential gain from implementing multi-species management compared to traditional single-species management. The objective is to maximize discounted net revenue; in other words a sole-owner perspective. The results are derived from an empirically based surplus growth type of model with three species. The biological interaction in the model is mainly competition for food. An important result is that discounted net revenue could have been up to 30% higher if the stocks had been optimally managed from a multi-species perspective.</p> 45 5 Pub_Type 1 45 6 Pub_Year 2014 45 7 Pub_OldID 0 45 8 12680 R02/15 Tommy S. Gabrielsen, Alexander Jakubanecs, Hans Jarle Kind, Øivind Anti Nilsen, Frode Skjeret, Lars Sørgard, Helge Thorbjørnsen og Helge Østbye Konkurransemessige virkninger av noen utvalgte NRK-tjenester /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 02_15.pdf 2 2015 0 PubID 12680 46 0 Pub_TypeNumber R02/15 46 1 Pub_Writer Tommy S. Gabrielsen, Alexander Jakubanecs, Hans Jarle Kind, Øivind Anti Nilsen, Frode Skjeret, Lars Sørgard, Helge Thorbjørnsen og Helge Østbye 46 2 Pub_Title Konkurransemessige virkninger av noen utvalgte NRK-tjenester 46 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/SNF-R 02_15.pdf 46 4 Pub_AbstractEn 46 5 Pub_Type 2 46 6 Pub_Year 2015 46 7 Pub_OldID 0 46 8 12679 A16/14 Mia Færøvik Johannessen Investeringer i bredbåndskapasitet. Litteraturgjennomgang innenfor emnet nettnøytralitet /Files/Filer/Publications/A16_14.pdf 1 2014 0 PubID 12679 47 0 Pub_TypeNumber A16/14 47 1 Pub_Writer Mia Færøvik Johannessen 47 2 Pub_Title Investeringer i bredbåndskapasitet. Litteraturgjennomgang innenfor emnet nettnøytralitet 47 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A16_14.pdf 47 4 Pub_AbstractEn 47 5 Pub_Type 1 47 6 Pub_Year 2014 47 7 Pub_OldID 0 47 8 12678 A03/15 Ivar Kolstad, Armando J. Garcia Pires and Arne Wiig Within-group heterogeneity and group dynamics: Analyzing exit of microcredit groups in Angola /Files/Filer/Publications/A03_15.pdf <p>The effect of within-group heterogeneity on the survival of social groups is theoretically ambiguous. A greater diversity of ideas, experience, and networks can have a positive effect on members&rsquo; benefits from group membership, but diversity also creates a potential for conflict. This paper presents an analysis of the exit of microcredit groups, using data from Angola. The results suggest that group fragmentation in terms of social identities, or more specifically religious fractionalization, is associated with a greater probability of group exit. Results for within-group economic inequality suggest, however, that inequality is associated with a decrease in the probability of exit, but at a diminishing rate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 12678 48 0 Pub_TypeNumber A03/15 48 1 Pub_Writer Ivar Kolstad, Armando J. Garcia Pires and Arne Wiig 48 2 Pub_Title Within-group heterogeneity and group dynamics: Analyzing exit of microcredit groups in Angola 48 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A03_15.pdf 48 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>The effect of within-group heterogeneity on the survival of social groups is theoretically ambiguous. A greater diversity of ideas, experience, and networks can have a positive effect on members&rsquo; benefits from group membership, but diversity also creates a potential for conflict. This paper presents an analysis of the exit of microcredit groups, using data from Angola. The results suggest that group fragmentation in terms of social identities, or more specifically religious fractionalization, is associated with a greater probability of group exit. Results for within-group economic inequality suggest, however, that inequality is associated with a decrease in the probability of exit, but at a diminishing rate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 48 5 Pub_Type 1 48 6 Pub_Year 2015 48 7 Pub_OldID 0 48 8 12677 A02/15 Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge, Kjetil Bjorvatn, Armando Jose Garcia Pires and Bertil Tungodden Competitive in the lab, successful in the field? /Files/Filer/Publications/A02_15.pdf <p>A number of lab experiments in recent years have analyzed people&rsquo;s willingness to compete. But to what extent is competitive behavior in the lab associated with field choices and outcomes? We address this question in a setting of entrepreneurship, where we combine lab evidence on competitiveness with field evidence on investment, employment, profit, and sales. We find strong evidence that competitiveness in the lab is positively associated with competitive choices in the field (investment and employment) and weaker, but suggestive, evidence of a positive link to successful field outcomes (profit and sales). Other non-cognitive skills measured in the lab, including risk- and time preferences and confidence, and cognitive skills are less consistently associated with the field variables. Our findings suggest that the willingness to compete in the lab identifies an important entrepreneurial trait that shapes the entrepreneur&rsquo;s field choices and to some extent also field outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 1 2015 0 PubID 12677 49 0 Pub_TypeNumber A02/15 49 1 Pub_Writer Lars Ivar Oppedal Berge, Kjetil Bjorvatn, Armando Jose Garcia Pires and Bertil Tungodden 49 2 Pub_Title Competitive in the lab, successful in the field? 49 3 Pub_Publication /Files/Filer/Publications/A02_15.pdf 49 4 Pub_AbstractEn <p>A number of lab experiments in recent years have analyzed people&rsquo;s willingness to compete. But to what extent is competitive behavior in the lab associated with field choices and outcomes? We address this question in a setting of entrepreneurship, where we combine lab evidence on competitiveness with field evidence on investment, employment, profit, and sales. We find strong evidence that competitiveness in the lab is positively associated with competitive choices in the field (investment and employment) and weaker, but suggestive, evidence of a positive link to successful field outcomes (profit and sales). Other non-cognitive skills measured in the lab, including risk- and time preferences and confidence, and cognitive skills are less consistently associated with the field variables. Our findings suggest that the willingness to compete in the lab identifies an important entrepreneurial trait that shapes the entrepreneur&rsquo;s field choices and to some extent also field outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 49 5 Pub_Type 1 49 6 Pub_Year 2015 49 7 Pub_OldID 0 49 8